Common communicable disease in children – how to take care your loved ones

Chicken pox

Mild fever followed in 36 hours by small raised pimples which become filled with clear fluid. Scabs form later. Successive crops of fox appear 12 to 19 days usually 13 -14 days non-immune after one attack. 6 Days after appearance of rash if all scabs are dry. Not serious disease for children; trim fingernails to prevent scratching; a paste of baking soda and water,or alcohol, may ease itching.

German measles [3 day measles].

Mild fever, sore throat or cold symptoms may precede tiny, rose-colored rash’ enlarged glands by back of neck and behind ears. 2-3 Weeks usually 18 days none. Immune after one attack. Girls are often exposed intentionally since later contracting the disease in early months of pregnancy may harm the unborn baby, new vaccine. Until rash fades. About 3-5 days generally not a serious disease in childhood, complications very rare; give general good care and moderate rest.

Measles

Mounting fever, hard dry cough, running nose red eyes for 3-4 days before rash which starts at hairline and spreads down in blotch. Small red spots with white centers in mouth [koplik’s spots] appear before the rash.1-2 Weeks usually 10 -11 days. All children should receive measles vaccine as soon as possible after one year of age. If an unvaccinated child is exposed to measles, gamma globulin given shortly after exposure may lighten or prevent the disease.Until rash disappears usually 7-8 days,may be mild or severe with complications or serious nature; follow doctor’s advice in caring for a child with measles. As it is a most treacherous disease..

Mumps

Fever, headache, vomiting, glands near ear and toward chin at jawline acne and these develop painful swelling. Other parts of body may be affected also 14-21 days usually around 17 days.Is apt to be milder in childhood than later, some doctors like little boys to get mumps over with before school age. Mumps vaccination for all boys age 11 and over who have not had mumps.Until all swelling disappears.Keep child indoors until fever subsides. Not necessary to remain in bed.

Roseola high fever

Which drops before rash or large pink blotches covering whole body appear. Child may not seem very ill despite the high fever 103”-105 ‘’ but he may convulse,4-5 days none, usually affects children from 6 months to 3 years of age.Antibiotics may prevent or lighten an attack if doctor feels it wise.Until all signs and symptoms disappear.Frequently less severely; responds to antibiotics which should be continued for full course to prevent serious complications.

Strep throat [septic sore throat] and scarlet fever [scarlatina]

sometimes vomiting and fever before sudden and severe sore throat. If followed by fine rash on body and limbs, it is called scarlet fever.1-7 Days usually 2-5 antibiotics may prevent or lighten an attack if doctor feels it wise until all signs and symptoms disappear.Frequently less severe than formerly; responds to antibiotics which should be continued for full course to prevent serious complications.

Whooping cough

At first seems like a cold with low fever and cough which changes at end of second week to spells of coughing accompanied by noisy gasp for air which creates the “whoop”7-21 days.Usually around 7 days give injections of vaccine to all children in fancy; if an unvaccinated child has been exposed. The doctor may want to give a protective serum promptly.At least 4 weeks.Child needs careful supervision of doctor throughout this taxing illness.

Infection hepatitis [Catarrhal jaundice].

May be mild with few symptoms or accompanied by fever, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, general weariness. Later yellow skin [jaundice]. Urine dark and bowel movements chalk like.2-6 Weeks commonly 25 days injection of gamma globulin gives temporarily immunity lasting 3-4 weeks if child is exposed.May last 2 months or more. May be mild or may require hospital care.

Infectious mononucleosis [glandular fever].

Sore throat, swollen glands of neck and elsewhere, sometimes a rash over whole body and jaundiced appearance, low persistent fever.Probably 4-14 days or longer.None probably 2-4 weeks but mode of transmission is not clear.Keep in bed while feverish, restrictive activity thereafter.

Meningitis

May be preceded by a cold; headache, stiff neck, vomiting, high temperature with convulsions or drowsy stupor; fine rash with tiny hemorrhages into the skin.2-10 Days none until recovery immediate treatment is necessary. Take child hospital if doctor unavailable. Continue treatment with antibiotics as long as doctor advises.

Polio [infantile paralysis or poliomyelitis].

Slight fever, general discomfort, headache, stiff neck, stiff back.1-4 Weeks commonly 1-2 weeks give all children 4 injections of polio vaccine plus booster shots regularly, or oral vaccine, as advised by your doctor.A week from one set or as long as fever persists.Hospital care as usually advised.
Rocky mountain spotted fever.Muscles pains, nose bleed occasionally headache, rash on 3rd or 4th day. About a week after bite of infection tick..Injection can given to a child who lives in heavily infested area.Spread only by infected ticks new drugs have improved treatment.

Smallpox

Sudden fever, chills, head and back ache. Rash which becomes raised and hard, later busters and scabs.6-18 Days commonly 12.Vaccination practically perfect protection. Vaccinate during first year and again before school. New antibiotic for treatment of active cases.Until all scabs disappear. Doctor’s care is necessary.